Automatic Facial Expression Analysis: A Survey
Over the last decade, automatic facial expression analysis has become an active research area that finds potential applications in areas such as more engaging human-computer interfaces, talking heads, image retrieval and human emotion analysis. Facial expressions reflect not only emotions, but other mental activities, social interaction and physiological signals. In this survey we introduce the most prominent automatic facial expression analysis methods and systems presented in the literature. Facial motion and deformation extraction approaches as well as classification methods are discussed with respect to issues such as face normalization, facial expression dynamics and facial expression intensity, but also with regard to their robustness towards environmental changes.
Published in Pattern Recognition, 36(1):259-275, 2003
Record created on 2006-03-10, modified on 2016-08-08