In this thesis, we describe a method for the numerical reconstruction of the complete wavefront properties from a single digital hologram: the amplitude, the phase and the polarization state. For this purpose, we present the principle of digital holographic microscopy (DHM) and the numerical reconstruction process which consists of propagating numerically a wavefront from the hologram plane to the reconstruction plane. We then define the different parameters of a Numerical Parametric Lens (NPL) introduced in the reconstruction plane that should be precisely adjusted to achieve a correct reconstruction. We demonstrate that automatic procedures not only allow to adjust these parameters, but in addition, to completely compensate for the phase aberrations. The method consists in computing directly from the hologram a NPL defined by standard or Zernike polynomials without prior knowledge of physical setup values (microscope objective focal length, distance between the object and the objective...). This method enables to reconstruct correct and accurate phase distributions, even in the presence of strong and high order aberrations. Furthermore, we show that this method allows to compensate for the curvature of specimen. The NPL parameters obtained by Zernike polynomial fit give quantitative measurements of micro-optics aberrations and the reconstructed images reveal their surface defects and roughness. Examples with micro-lenses and a metallic sphere are presented. Then, this NPL is introduced in the hologram plane and allows, as a system of optical lenses, numerical magnification, complete aberration compensation in DHM (correction of image distortions and phase aberrations) and shifting. This NPL can be automatically computed by polynomial fit, but it can also be defined by a calibration method called Reference Conjugated Hologram (RCH). We demonstrate the power of the method by the reconstruction of non-aberrated wavefronts from holograms recorded specifically with high orders aberrations introduced by a tilted thick plate, or by a cylindrical lens or by a lens ball used instead of the microscope objective. Finally, we present a modified digital holographic microscope permitting the reconstruction of the polarization state of a wavefront. The principle consists in using two reference waves polarized orthogonally that interfere with an object wave. Then, the two wavefronts are reconstructed separately from the same hologram and are processed to image the polarization state in terms of Jones vector components. Simulated and experimental data are compared to a theoretical model in order to evaluate the precision limit of the method for different polarization states of the object wave. We apply this technique to image the birefringence and the dichroism induced in a stressed polymethylmethacrylate sample (PMMA), in a bent optical fiber and in a thin concrete specimen. To evaluate the precision of the phase difference measurement in DHM design, the birefringence induced by internal stress in an optical fiber is measured and compared to the birefringence profile captured by a standard method, which had been developed to obtain high-resolution birefringence profiles of optical fibers. A 6 degrees phase difference resolution is obtained, comparable with standard imaging polariscope, but with the advantage of a single acquisition allowing real-time reconstruction.