Ultra-High Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC) can be considered, due to its high strength and improved durability, as one of the leading recent innovations in civil engineering. Material scientists have developed a very efficient, high-tech material by optimizing the concrete composition and improving the density of the cement matrix. Its structural behavior and in particular its relatively high ductility, despite the brittle behavior of the cement matrix, is influenced significantly by the crack-bridging behavior of the fibers. This behavior affects not only the tensile behavior, but also the global material behavior, i.e.: bending (tension by bending), compression (transversal tension, confinement), shear, punching, concentrated load introduction, etc. In the presented study, the tensile behavior of UHPFRC is analyzed as a basis for its structural behavior. The investigations extend from the 'micro-scale' behavior of the crack-bridging fibers in one crack to the 'macro-scale' behavior of tension members composed of UHPFRC. To obtain efficient tensile performance, the use of the UHPFRC in combination with reinforcing bars is expedient. The bond between the reinforcing bars and the UHPFRC is investigated, in order to analyze and understand the structural response of reinforced UHPFRC tension members. At each level of investigation, emphasis is placed on comprehension of the mechanical process. The influence of the fiber orientation, creep, shrinkage, and pre-stressing is discussed. Based on the studied mechanical processes, micro- and macro-scale modeling of the structural behavior is carried out. The cracking mechanisms of UHPFRC are examined in the research work. For the structural response of reinforced UHPFRC tension members, the influence of the double multi-cracking behavior is particularly relevant. First, multiple meso-cracks form controlled by the fibers and then multiple macro-cracks form controlled by the bond between the UHPFRC and the reinforcing steel. With a model based on these mechanisms, the structural response of tension members made from different types of UHPFRC can be described. Depending on the configuration of the tension member (i.e.: type of UHPFRC, reinforcement ratio, steel type, pre-stressing), five different failure regimes result for reinforced UHPFRC tension members. For practical applications the following conclusions can be drawn: Tension members composed of UHPFRC show very efficient structural behavior. The resistance of the UHPFRC supplements the steel resistance according to its strain-respective cracking state. The well distributed cracking of the UHPFRC leads to a considerable increase in the rigidity of the tension member (high tension stiffening effect). To obtain an efficient tension member with a large deformation capacity, a relatively high reinforcement ratio is necessary. Due to the associated continuous hardening behavior and significant elastic deformation, the use of high-strength reinforcing steel without a yielding plateau is favorable.