Contributions aux études sur le couplage électroacoustique dans les espaces clos en vue du contrôle actif

The aim of this work was to analyze the global behavior of a loudspeaker exciting a room in the frequency band of its first modes, for the purpose of active control applications. First, the loudspeaker in free field was studied. The characterization of a loudspeaker on the base of equivalent circuits has been established, showing the preponderant importance of the load impedance, determined by near field measurements. Then, the steady state has been modeled and the study has been set on the characterization of the wall impedance, which determines the eigenfrequencies and the amplitude of their modes, as well as charge impedance. The latter which modifies the volume velocity compared with the one in free field, has been characterized. The previous results enable the precise computation of the pressure field in a closed space and excited by a loudspeaker in steady state, according to the wall impedance. For active control purposes, transitory sounds are particularly important, therefore the behavior of a sound field in a room excited by several parameterized sounds has been studied in the time domain. The room response to the source activation could therefore be modeled. This response consists of a free and a transitory state, both of which are qualified through coherent assumptions and observations. Through simulation and systematic experimentation, the loudspeaker-room system has been characterized for a stationary as well as for a transitory sound, revealing the constraints affecting modal active control. Many experiments showed the efficiency of modal active noise control. Observations presented the importance of low frequencies in the annoyance of airplane noise inside rooms. Directives have been given to install active noise reduction system. The main part of this work constitutes an electro acoustical knowledge basis to perform modal active noise control.

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