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Our recent developments concerning the fabrication of polymer microchips and their applications for biochemical analyses are reviewed. We first describe two methods of fabrication of polymer microfluidic chips, namely UV-laser photoablation and plasma etching that are well suited for the prototyping and mass fabrication of microchannel networks with integrated microelectrodes. These microanalytical systems can be coupled with various detection means including mass spectrometry, and their applications in capillary electrophoresis are presented here. We also present how UV laser photoablation can be used for the patterning of biomolecules on polymer surfaces for generating two-dimensional arrays of microspots to carry out affinity assays. Finally, the use of the microchips for the development of fast affinity and immunological assays with electrochemical detection is presented, demonstrating the potential of these polymer microchips for medical diagnostics and drug discovery.