CMOS pixels for subretinal implantable prothesis
This work reports on the design, fabrication, and characterization of CMOS pixels for subretinal implants, which seems to be an effective way to recover visual capabilities in some types of blindness. Two possible approaches are presented for CMOS pixel implementation: 1) an approach based on a light- controlled oscillator (LICOS) using a ring oscillator with an odd number of inverters and 2) an approach based on distributing a square signal at each pixel that filters out a number of pulses depending of the light intensity wave across the chip (WATCH). Both types of pixels fabricated in 0.35-mum CMOS demonstrate good mimic of the electrical behavior of human retina, with low- power consumption (typically 1 mW for a 14 x 14 matrix of pixels) and having small dimensions (75 x 78.5 mum(2) for LICOS and 70 x 50 mum(2) for WATCH), which make them suitable for practical implants. Experimental validation is reported on physiological solutions. Because of its characteristic, the proposed matrix of pixels could be considered as one of the first stand- alone highly integrated solutions for subretinal implant chips.