Multicriteria Optimisation of Small Hybrid Solar Power System.
A new concept of small hybrid solar power system (HSPS) has been successfully demonstrated in the context of a project called SPS (Solar Power System). This plant integrates two rows of solar collectors, two superposed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC) each equipped with a scroll hermetic expander-generator and a heat engine. In operation with solar energy only, the heat is supplied by a thermal fluid (presently pressurized water) heated in the vacuum insulated focal tubes of sun following, flat concentrators made of series of thin plate mirrors (CEP). In hybrid mode additional heat is supplied by heat recovery from the exhaust gases of the engine in series with the solar network and by a separate network recovering heat from the cooling of the engine block at an intermediate temperature level. This paper presents the results of a multi-criteria optimization of a 22 kWe HSPS, including aspects such as energy performance, economic and financial analysis, and environemental aspects. The so called mini-maxi methodological approach with genetic algorithm is used considering three principal criteria such as the energy efficiency of the superposed ORCs, the minimal cost of the installation and the minimum emission of CO2 . Taking into account of the solar radiation time dependence, the elecricity supply variation and the change of configuration (night and day operation), the performance analysis is based essentially on the yearly energy simulation in which the off-design physical models of components are considered. A comparison of HSPS with pure fossil fuelled Plants (DEPU-Diesel Engine Power Unit) is reported for the same electrical power load curve, with an economic sensitivity analysis. Results show that the solar electricity costs are still high and depend considerably on the size of the Solar Field (the HSPS Levelized Electricity Cost with 5 to 16% of annual solar share is about 17% to 49% higher than a similar size Diesel Engine Power Unit). However, a reduction of CO2, emission up to 26% could be obtained when replacing the Diesel Engine Unit by a similar HSPS. Those hybrid solar thermal power systems may already be competitive if a tax of about 42 Swiss cts/kgCO2 would be considered.