In this paper we present the main challenges in mobile ad-hoc wide area networks (MAWANs). A MAWAN is a wide area, large, (potentially) entirely wireless networks. We describe the Terminodes Project (a 10-year-long research program (2000-2010) in MAWANs, see http://www.terminodes.org) that investigates issues and challenges in MAWANs. The name of the project comes from the fact that the elements of the network act as nodes and terminals at the same (terminodes).