This review discusses the potential of block copolymer type macromolecular building blocks for the preparation of self-assembled materials. Three different classes of block copolymer type architectures will be distinguished: i) coil-coil diblock copolymers, ii) rod-coil diblock copolymers, and iii) rod-coil diblock oligomers. The basic principles that underlie the self-assembly of each of these different building blocks will be discussed. These theoretical considerations are complemented with examples from recent literature that illustrate the potential of the different type of block copolymers to prepare (functional) supramolecular materials. Finally, several strategies will be presented that could allow the preparation of stimuli-sensitive self-assembled materials, i.e., materials whose properties can be reversibly manipulated under the action of appropriate external stimuli.