A contribution to energy saving in induction motors

Electric motors consume over half of the electrical energy produced by power stations, almost the three-quarters of the electrical consumption in industry and almost the half of commercial electrical consumption in developed countries. Motors are by far the most important type of electric charges, and so constitute the main targets to achieve energy saving. Owing to their simple and robust construction, the asynchronous motors and especially those of squirrel-cage types, represent about 90-95% of the electrical energy consumption of electric motors, which is equivalent to about 53% of total electrical energy consumption. They are widely used as electrical drives in industrial, commercial, public service, traction and domestic applications. Owing to the importance of induction motors, this thesis is aimed at contributing to energy saving efforts, more specifically in the field of low power induction motors. A contribution is kept in perspective by taking into consideration the energy saving potential during the motor design stage as well as during its operation. Every effort to save energy in motor application can be made by always attempting to use energy only as much as what needed during its operation. The best way is to exploit the saving potential during motor design, while at the same time taking into account its intended application. It can be achieved either through the improvement of motor design or through the reduction of its input electrical energy when the motor has already been built. These two efforts are studied, elaborated and worked out thoroughly in this thesis. To attain this objective, a synthesis has been started with the description of how to model an induction motor. To obtain a better model, an improvement is proposed by using the Schwarz-Christoffel mapping to calculate the slot leakage inductance in induction motor. With such method, slot-leakage inductance can be determined more precisely, resulting in more accurate prediction of motor characteristics. It is based on the stored magnetic energy calculation using two-directional field distribution in the slot. The air gap influence can be observed easily, so that a reasonable slot leakage definition can be adopted. Unlike the conventional method, which is only suitable for rectangular slots (otherwise empirical corrections are required), the proposed general slot form can be extended to any desired polygonal slot form. Consideration of saturation is also indispensable because ignoring it could result in inaccuracy in motor performance prediction. Considering the saturation is essential owing to its important role in self-excitation phenomenon to establish voltage build-up in induction generator. However, the self-excitation phenomenon is undesirable in certain group of capacitor motors as it may hinder the switching-off process and mechanical braking at a desired moment. The undesirable switching-off failure condition is to be avoided by properly designing the capacitor motor. Like in this capacitor motor special application, where a proper design is useful from the point of view of operation safety, designing properly a motor is also very important in energy saving efforts. Motor design and optimization to minimize losses as well as to make possible wide speed-range motor operation are some of the efforts. However, when induction motor has already been built, saving energy is only possible by managing its supplying electrical energy. Various strategies are possible and a particular emphasis on the use of triac to reduce motor input voltage is presented. Besides, a brief economic saving evaluation is given to draw attention to the energy saving potential.

Jufer, Marcel
Lausanne, EPFL
Other identifiers:
urn: urn:nbn:ch:bel-epfl-thesis3255-2

Note: The status of this file is: EPFL only

 Record created 2005-05-18, last modified 2018-03-17

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