We consider the problem of low-sampling rate high-resolution channel estimation and timing for digital ultra-wideband (UWB) receivers. We extend some of our recent results in sampling of certain classes of parametric non-bandlimited signals and develop a frequency domain method for channel estimation and synchronization in ultra-wideband systems, which uses sub-Nyquist uniform sampling and well-studied computational procedures. In particular, the proposed method can be used for identification of more realistic channel models, where different propagation paths undergo different frequency-selective fading. Moreover, we show that it is possible to obtain high-resolution estimates of all relevant channel parameters by sampling a received signal below the traditional Nyquist rate. Our approach leads to faster acquisition compared to current digital solutions, allows for slower A/D converters, and potentially reduces power consumption of digital UWB receivers significantly.