The multilevel converters allow generating a voltage waveform whose magnitude and quality are higher than those of conventional converters. They are devoted to medium and high-voltage, high-switching-frequency applications. Among the series connected cell inverters, the symmetrical multilevel inverters are made of identical cells, which topology is generally the H-bridge inverter. This dissertation deals with asymmetrical multilevel converters, which combine high-voltage cells — made of low conduction loss switches — with low-voltage cells — made of low switching loss switches. The different cells play different roles. The goal is to design a converter that has both better energetic efficiency and higher resolution with the same number of cells. This dissertation develops a set of tools that allows synthesizing an asymmetrical multilevel converter. It develops the cell combination rules, which allow defining several cell association classes. The inverter step uniformity condition determines the finesse that can be reached. The optimized modulation condition allows to reduce the highvoltage cell switching frequency without changing the low-voltage cell switching frequency. This property is essential to derive benefit from combining switches of different characteristics. The power balance condition determine how to control the power sharing between the cells. These association classes are different for the single-phase converters and the three-phase converters — without neutral wire. They allow to select a configuration suitable for a given application. Furthermore, several ways that allow improving the inverter resolution are investigated. The modulation is essential to associate a high-quality signal (which will really be delivered to the load by means of the inverter levels) to the reference signal (which should ideally be applied to the load). The modulator evaluation methods are assessed. An approach—based on the modulated signal decomposition in elementary frames—is proposed. The main modulator drawbacks are highlighted. A modulator—which arrange the frames in order—allows to reduce the modulated signal distortion and number of transitions. The specific control methods that allow to minimize the inverter number of switchings are developed. The active power cell supply implies several conversion stages, which decrease the converter energetic efficiency. Some solutions that allow to reduce these losses are proposed. Finally, this dissertation attempts to determine, which are the more interesting solutions, depending on the application.