In this thesis new imaging approaches for optical microscopy are proposed and studied. They are based on the use of dynamic structured illumination in combination with a demodulation detection concept employing CMOS image detectors. Two particular implementations are suggested: real-time optical sectioning microscopy and whole field quantitative polarization microscopy. Optical sectioning, i.e depth resolved imaging, allows observation of thin sections in volumetric samples. In its classical configuration the wide-field microscope does not allow optical sectioning of the investigated objects. In this thesis the optical sectioning in a wide-field microscope is achieved by illuminating the sample with a continuously moving single spatial frequency pattern, which temporarily modulates the signal obtained on the photodetector. Only the object parts that are in the focus have a good contrast and consequently generate stronger signal on the detector. The optically sectioned images are obtained employing a CMOS image detector, which demodulates the time-dependent component of the image. Two different systems for real-time acquisition of optically sectioned images are proposed. The first one is based on a specially designed smart-pixel-detector-array (SPDA), which allows performing the signal processing by an electronic circuit integrated to each pixel of the sensor. The second system utilizes a commercial CMOS image sensor. Here, the images are treated by a digital signal processor (DSP) integrated into the camera (iMVS-155). Both approaches provide real-time acquisition of optically sectioned images. The proof of principle for the new method is demonstrated by imaging artificial three-dimensional reflective samples. The optical sectioning imaging of biological samples in bright-field mode and in fluorescence mode is also demonstrated. The optical sectioning performances of the studied systems are similar to that of the confocal microscope. However the new method has some advantages over the classical confocal system: e.g. the difficulties with the alignment and the post-processing inherent to the confocal system are avoided. The theoretical framework presented in the thesis describes the image formation in structured illumination for both reflective and fluorescent samples. The influence of longitudinal chromatic aberration and spherical aberration caused by specimen induced index mismatch on depth discrimination property are studied. In extension to the work related to optically sectioned microscopy, the quantitative polarization microscopy imaging method is proposed as a new application for CMOS detectors. The polarization state of the illuminating light is dynamically changed and the demodulation detection approach is employed to extract the retardance and azimuth of the birefringent sample in real-time; for a whole field of view. Examples of polarization sensitive measurements for different samples are presented. The theoretical analysis is performed using the Jones formalism. Finally, the potentials and limitations of the CMOS detectors for applications in optical microscopy are discussed. Thanks to constant advancements in CMOS technology, the acquisition speed, resolution and sensitivity of new CMOS detectors generations have been improved. This will allow adapting the methods proposed in this thesis for investigations of fast dynamic process where high temporal and spatial resolution is required.