Contribution à l'étude des modes de rayonnement acoustique d'une structure
Noise radiated by different industrial structures that surround us in daily life are more and more considered as environmental pollution. Standards defining a tolerable sound level for each of these noise sources are regularly called into question and respecting them becomes an additional constraint for manufacturers. The last decades have seen the increasing development of means used to fight these noise disturbances. The wide diversity of noises perceived as harmful has contributed to the progressive increase in specificity and efficiency of solutions proposed to reduce the disturbances. For some applications, passive solutions, based on the use of materials capable of absorbing or deviating acoustic or vibratory waves, have progressively been replaced by "active" solutions, based on the generation of an acoustic wave of opposite phase to the disturbing one radiated by the noise source. Power transformers are sources for which passive solutions (anti-noise walls) are usually expensive and not very efficient, particularly at low frequency. Furthermore, characteristics of noise radiated by transformers (low frequency tone noise) are such that they are particularly well suited for the implementation of an active solution. Typically, an active control system dedicated to transformers (feedforward) is composed of actuators, used to generate the anti-noise and usually located near the tank, sensors, used to measure the attenuation obtained and to provide a reference signal, and a controller used to drive the actuators as a function of the information collected by the sensors. When the sensors are microphones, they are usually moved away from the noise source, in such a way that they pick up acoustic pressure that is representative of the noise propagated far away. In the vicinity of the source, local acoustic phenomena can occur which are not propagated far away. A microphone located near the noise source would therefore pick up an acoustic pressure that did not necessarily represent the one that effectively exists far away, the area where we are in fact seeking to reduce the noise. These phenomena, frequently grouped under the term "nearfield" tend to decrease the performance of the control system, owing to the fact that the controller seeks in this case to reduce an acoustic pressure which is not representative of the noise to be reduced. In practice, the significant amount of wiring required as a result of the positioning of the microphones in the far field, has a non-negligible effect on the cost of the system. The possibility of bringing the sensors closer to the source is sufficiently advantageous to envisage to studying the feasibility and the resulting consequences. The present approach consists in representing the primary field radiated by a vibrating structure in terms of a set of "acoustic radiation modes". The use of radiation modes to characterise the behaviour of a structure has received increasing attention since the beginning of 90's, especially for active control applications. Usually, this approach consists in representing the radiated power in terms of a set of surface velocity distributions, called radiation modes, that have the property of radiating independently of each other. Radiation modes result from diagonalization of a discrete expression of the radiation operator. We propose here to study the consequences on the radiation modes of a structure from bringing the microphones closer to it. We will study how the acoustic field varies with the distance and how this can be used to obtain a model, the complexity of which is adapted to the observation distance.
Faculté des sciences et techniques de l'ingénieur
Laboratoire d'électromagnétisme et acoustique
Jury: Pierre Boss, Philippe Herzog, Claude Lesueur, Philippe Robert, Jean-Jacques Simond
Public defense: 2001-5-30
Record created on 2005-03-16, modified on 2016-08-08