Infoscience

Thesis

Modeling diversity by strange attractors with application to temporal pattern recognition

This thesis belongs to the general discipline of establishing black-box models from real-word data, more precisely, from measured time-series. This is an old subject and a large amount of papers and books has been written about it. The main difficulty is to express the diversity of data that has essentially the same origin without creating confusion with data that has a different origin. Normally, the diversity of time-series is modeled by a stochastic process, such as filtered white noise. Often, it is reasonable to assume that the time series is generated by a deterministic dynamical system rather than a stochastic process. In this case, the diversity of the data is expressed by the variability of the parameters of the dynamical system. The parameter variability itself is then, once again, modeled by a stochastic process. In both cases the diversity is generated by some form of exogenous noise. In this thesis a further step has been taken. A single chaotic dynamical system is used to model the data and their diversity. Indeed, a chaotic system produces a whole family of trajectories that are different but nonetheless very similar. It is believed that chaotic dynamics not only are a convenient means to represent diversity but that in many cases the origin of diversity stems actually from chaotic dynamic. Since the approach of this thesis explores completely new grounds the most suitable kind of data is considered, namely approximately periodic signals. In nature such time-series are rather common, in particular the physiological signal of living beings, such as the electrocardiograms (ECG), parts of speech signals, electroencephalograms (EEG), etc. Since there are strong arguments in favor of the chaotic nature of these signals, they appear to be the best candidates for modeling diversity by chaos. It should be stressed however, that the modeling approach pursued in this thesis is thought to be quite general and not limited to signals produced by chaotic dynamics in nature. The intended application of the modeling effort in this thesis is temporal signal classification. The reason for this is twofold. Firstly, classification is one of the basic building block of any cognitive system. Secondly, the recently studied phenomenon of synchronization of chaotic systems suggests a way to test a signal against its chaotic model. The essential content of this work can now be formulated as follows. Thesis: The diversity of approximately periodic signals found in nature can be modeled by means of chaotic dynamics. This kind of modeling technique, together with selective properties of the synchronization of chaotic systems, can be exploited for pattern recognition purposes. This Thesis is advocated by means of the following five points. Models of randomness (Chapter 2) It is argued that the randomness observed in nature is not necessarily the result of exogenous noise, but it could be endogenally generated by deterministic chaotic dynamics. The diversity of real signals is compared with signals produced by the most common chaotic systems. Qualitative resonance (Chapter 3) The behavior of chaotic systems forced by periodic or approximately periodic input signals is studied theoretically and by numerical simulation. It is observed that the chaotic system "locks" approximately to an input signal that is related to its internal chaotic dynamic. In contrast to this, its chaotic behavior is reinforced when the input signal has nothing to do with its internal dynamics. This new phenomenon is called "qualitative resonance". Modeling and recognizing (Chapter 4) In this chapter qualitative resonance is used for pattern recognition. The core of the method is a chaotic dynamical system that is able to reproduce the class of time-series that is to be recognized. This model is excited in a suitable way by an input signal such that qualitative resonance is realized. This means that if the input signal belongs to the modeled class of time-series, the system approximately "locks" into it. If not, the trajectory of the system and the input signal remain unrelated. Automated design of the recognizer (Chapters 5 and 6) For the kind of signals considered in this thesis a systematic design method of the recognizer is presented. The model used is a system of Lur'e type, i.e. a model where the linear dynamic and nonlinear static part are separated. The identification of the model parameters from the given data proceed iteratively, adapting in turn the linear and the nonlinear part. Thus, the difficult nonlinear dynamical system identification task is decomposed into the easier problems of linear dynamical and nonlinear static system identification. The way to apply the approximately periodic input signal in order to realize qualitative resonance is chosen with the help of periodic control theory. Validation (Chapter 7) The pattern recognition method has been validated on the following examples — A synthetic example — Laboratory measurement from Colpitts oscillator — ECG — EEG — Vowels of a speech signals In the first four cases a binary classification and in the last example a classification with five classes was performed. To the best of the knowledge of the author the recognition method is original. Chaotic systems have been already used to produce pseudo-noise and to model signal diversity. Also, parameter identification of chaotic systems has been already carried out. However, the direct establishment of the model from the given data and its subsequent use for classification based on the phenomenon of qualitative resonance is entirely new.

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