Ad-hoc networks are a key in the evolution of wireless networks. Ad-hoc networks are typically composed of equal nodes, which communicate over wireless links without any central control. Ad-hoc wireless networks inherit the traditional problems of wireless and mobile communications, such as bandwidth optimisation, power control and transmission quality enhancement. In addition, the multi-hop nature and the lack of fixed infrastructure brings new research problems such as configuration advertising, discovery and maintenance, as well as ad-hoc addressing and self-routing. Many different approaches and protocols have been proposed and there are even multiple standardization efforts within the Internet Engineering Task Force, as well as academic and industrial projects. This chapter focuses on the state of the art in mobile ad-hoc networks. It highlights some of the emerging technologies, protocols, and approaches (at different layers) for realizing network services for users on the move in areas with possibly no pre-existing communications infrastructure.