The cement for surgical purposes includes three components. The first component includes beta tertiary calciumphosphate beta-Ca3(PO4)2(beta-TCP) particles; and monocalcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2(MCPA) or monocalcium phosphate monohydrate Ca(H2PO4).H2O (MCPM) particles or phosphoric acid. The second component includes water. The third component includes particles having an average diameter which is larger than the average diameter of the beta tertiary calciumphosphate beta-Ca3(PO4)2(beta-TCP) particles of the first component. Upon mixing of the three components a hardened mass comprising brushite CaHPO4.2H2O (DCPD) is formed. The beta-TCP particles have a specific surface area of less than 10,000 m2/g and a Ca/P atomic ratio different from 1.50. The component constitutes 1 to 99 volume-percent of the hardened mass. The cements according to the invention may be used in dental and maxillofacial surgery (alveolar ridge reconstruction, dental socket filling), for orthopaedic applications (bone fracture repair, bone augmentation) and for local drug delivery (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs).