Cluster synchronization in three-dimensional lattices of diffusively coupled oscillators
Cluster synchronization modes of continuous time oscillators that are diffusively coupled in a three-dimensional (3-D) lattice are studied in the paper via the corresponding linear invariant manifolds. Depending in an essential way on the number of oscillators composing the lattice in three volume directions, the set of possible regimes of spatiotemporal synchronization is examined. Sufficient conditions of the stability of cluster synchronization are obtained analytically for a wide class of coupled dynamical systems with complicated individual behavior. Dependence of the necessary coupling strengths for the onset of global synchronization on the number of oscillators in each lattice direction is discussed and an approximative formula is proposed. The appearance and order of stabilization of the cluster synchronization modes with increasing coupling between the oscillators are revealed for 2-D and 3-D lattices of coupled Lur'e systems and of coupled Rossler oscillators.