The invention relates to a programmable integrated electronic system including a matrix network of identical cells (53). Each cell includes functional elements (530) which are capable, when they are correctly connected, of executing a given function, and programmable connection means (a to h) in order, on the one hand, to connect the functional elements together and, on the other hand, to connect the cell to its neighbours. The present invention is characterised in that the system includes means for storing a first information item which defines the function of each of the cells of the network, and in that each cell has means for extracting, from this first information item and from its position in the network, the programming word for its own function. Moreover, means are provided for carrying out the test of correct operation of each cell and for reconfiguring the network in the event of defective cells.