How does one study the evolution of the Milky Way, or the expansion of the Universe, or explore the mysteries of Dark energy? To investigate these complex topics, astronomers require data, and a great deal of it, in the form of the spectra of stars, galaxies, and quasars. In recent years remarkable efforts have been made to develop telescopes and instruments that can measure more light spectra in parallel than ever before. One solution for building these instruments, called Multi-Object Spectrographs, requires the use of several hundreds of small precise automated robots in the telescope's focal plane. Each robot can position an optical fiber with micrometer precision along the focal surface in order to capture and transmit the light of a celestial object to a spectrograph, which then measures the spectrum with great precision. In the future, new instruments will be able to measure over 10000 celestial objects simultaneously, which would consequently require the implementation of as many optical fiber positioners. To assure the development and successful operation of the instrument, every single fiber positioner requires design and validation testing. Tools for such quality assurance have yet to be developed. This thesis proposes solutions to verify, calibrate, control, and operate optical fiber positioners with two actuated rotation axes, serially linked. A metrology system is presented which is capable of accurately measuring position and alignment of the optical fiber, and a detailed model describing the correct behavior of the positioner is introduced. Based on the model, an automated measurement procedure enables calibration and validation of the positioners. The introduced measurement procedure identifies not only flaws in performance, but also various error sources, which help to detect possible design and manufacturing problems. Finally, a method is proposed on how to operate these positioners in the focal plane. Taken together, the results of this thesis can inform the present and future manufacturer of Multi-Object Spectrographs.