SMA is a genetically determined motor system disorder that results in muscle weakness, selective motor neuron death, muscle atrophy, and impaired functional mobility. In SMA model systems, long-term treatment with 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) has been shown to improve motor function. To assess tolerability and preliminary efficacy of 4-AP on walking ability, endurance and EMG in adult ambulatory SMA patients, we conducted a double blind, placebo control, crossover pilot study with dalfampridine (4-AP, 10 mg BID). The study is comprised of a short-term (2 weeks) treatment arm with 1-week washout and a long-term (6 weeks) treatment arm with a 2-week washout. The primary outcome measure, for which the study was powered, was the 6 min walk test (6MWT, distance and percent fatigue); secondary outcome measures were the Hammersmith Functional Motor Scale Expanded (HFMSE), Manual Muscle Testing (MMT), Myometry with Hand held Dynamometry, HHD) and Quantitative Gait Analyses. We performed electrophysiology, including CMAP and H-reflex, during the short-term treatment trial. The mean age of the 11 participants enrolled was 37.7 +/- 11.9 years; 54.5% were male. Dalfampridine was safe and well tolerated and no patient suffered a serious adverse event related to treatment. We observed no statistically significant positive effects of dalfampridine treatment on our primary functional motor outcome (6MWT distance, fatigue). Dalfampridine had a positive effects on H-reflex and H/M ratio but not on CMAP amplitude. The effect on the H-reflex is of interest, as it suggests dalfampridine may enhance neuronal activity, an effect observed in SMA Drosophila and mouse models at doses (mg/kg) not recommended for clinical use. Larger studies with dalfampridine in SMA patients are needed to confirm our findings, especially in light of studies in other populations showing drug effects in only a subset of patients. (c) 2020 Published by Elsevier B.V.