Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have gained considerable attention in a broad range of engineering applications. In particular, iron-based SMAs (Fe-SMAs) have been recently developed and used as a cost-effective method for prestressed-strengthening of civil structures. Previous studies have shown that Fe-SMAs offer a strong shape memory effect (SME), however, a negligible superelastic behavior. The potential use of Fe-SMAs in seismic design and retrofit applications including supplemental damping is not yet clear and requires the further understanding of the material behavior under large amplitude cyclic inelastic straining. This thesis discusses key findings from a material-level experimental program that involved Fe-SMA round coupons subjected to a broad range of uniaxial cyclic strain histories representative of earthquake loading. Also, this work discusses the nonlinear modeling of Fe-SMAs under cyclic tension/compression straining.