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Abstract

Tsunamis, impulse-waves and dam-break waves have affected humanity in recent decades and the construction of vertical shelters can provide safety to people. However, for non-critical infrastructures, typically residential houses of lower height, overtopping is accepted during such events. This study experimentally quantifies the effect of building overtopping, i.e. water flowing over the roof, on the resulting loading process. Both surges and bores were investigated and the impact against buildings with two different heights was assessed. Detailed measurements of forces and moments allowed key differences to be captured between the scenarios with and without overtopping. Results showed that overtopping induced higher downstream water depths, leading to lower horizontal forces and a reduced resistance coefficient. Furthermore, cantilever arm, moment and impulse values were constantly lower in case of overtopping. Finally, this study presents an innovative methodology to assess the main loading features of buildings subject to overtopping, supporting engineers to design safer resilient structures.

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