000266414 001__ 266414
000266414 005__ 20190626113738.0
000266414 022__ $$a1662-5196
000266414 02470 $$a000467471100001$$2isi
000266414 0247_ $$a10.3389/fninf.2019.00032$$2doi
000266414 037__ $$aARTICLE
000266414 245__ $$aA Brief History of Simulation Neuroscience
000266414 260__ $$c2019$$aLausanne$$bFRONTIERS MEDIA SA
000266414 269__ $$a2019-05-07
000266414 336__ $$aReviews
000266414 520__ $$aOur knowledge of the brain has evolved over millennia in philosophical, experimental and theoretical phases. We suggest that the next phase is simulation neuroscience. The main drivers of simulation neuroscience are big data generated at multiple levels of brain organization and the need to integrate these data to trace the causal chain of interactions within and across all these levels. Simulation neuroscience is currently the only methodology for systematically approaching the multiscale brain. In this review, we attempt to reconstruct the deep historical paths leading to simulation neuroscience, from the first observations of the nerve cell to modern efforts to digitally reconstruct and simulate the brain. Neuroscience began with the identification of the neuron as the fundamental unit of brain structure and function and has evolved towards understanding the role of each cell type in the brain, how brain cells are connected to each other, and how the seemingly infinite networks they form give rise to the vast diversity of brain functions. Neuronal mapping is evolving from subjective descriptions of cell types towards objective classes, subclasses and types. Connectivity mapping is evolving from loose topographic maps between brain regions towards dense anatomical and physiological maps of connections between individual genetically distinct neurons. Functional mapping is evolving from psychological and behavioral stereotypes towards a map of behaviors emerging from structural and functional connectomes. We show how industrialization of neuroscience and the resulting large disconnected datasets are generating demand for integrative neuroscience, how the scale of neuronal and connectivity maps is driving digital atlasing and digital reconstruction to piece together the multiple levels of brain organization, and how the complexity of the interactions between molecules, neurons, microcircuits and brain regions is driving brain simulation to understand the interactions in the multiscale brain.
000266414 650__ $$aMathematical & Computational Biology
000266414 650__ $$aNeurosciences
000266414 650__ $$aMathematical & Computational Biology
000266414 650__ $$aNeurosciences & Neurology
000266414 6531_ $$asimulation neuroscience
000266414 6531_ $$adigital reconstruction
000266414 6531_ $$abrain modeling
000266414 6531_ $$aneuronal types
000266414 6531_ $$aconnectome
000266414 6531_ $$abrain structure and function
000266414 6531_ $$ahistory
000266414 6531_ $$ahuman brain
000266414 6531_ $$ahuman connectome
000266414 6531_ $$ain-vivo
000266414 6531_ $$asynaptic plasticity
000266414 6531_ $$apyramidal neurons
000266414 6531_ $$agene-expression
000266414 6531_ $$amorphological diversity
000266414 6531_ $$afluorescent protein
000266414 6531_ $$afield potentials
000266414 6531_ $$aresolution limit
000266414 700__ $$aFan, Xue$$0253880$$g278685
000266414 700__ $$aMarkram, Henry$$0240392$$g150822
000266414 773__ $$q32$$j13$$tFrontiers In Neuroinformatics
000266414 8560_ $$fdace.stiebrina@epfl.ch
000266414 909CO $$preview$$ooai:infoscience.epfl.ch:266414
000266414 909C0 $$0252553$$zBlumer, Eliane$$mdace.stiebrina@epfl.ch$$xU11230$$pBBP-CORE$$yApproved
000266414 961__ $$avalerie.charbonnier@epfl.ch
000266414 973__ $$aEPFL$$sPUBLISHED$$rREVIEWED
000266414 980__ $$aREVIEW
000266414 980__ $$aWoS
000266414 981__ $$aoverwrite
000266414 999C0 $$zBlumer, Eliane$$xU10458$$pLNMC$$mranjan.rajnish@epfl.ch$$mrodrigo.perin@epfl.ch$$0252120