A Dynamical System Approach to Motion and Force Generation in Contact Tasks

Many tasks require the robot to enter in contact with surfaces, be it to take support, to polish or to grasp an object. It is crucial that the robot controls forces both upon making contact and while in contact. While many solutions exist to control for contact, none offer the required robustness to adapt to real-world uncertainties, such as sudden displacement of the object prior and once in contact. To adapt to such disturbances require to re-plan on the fly both the trajectory and the force. Dynamical systems (DS) offer a framework for instant re-planning of trajectories. They are however limited to control of motions. We extend this framework here to enable generating contact forces and trajectories through DS. The framework allows also to modulate the impedance so as to show rigidity to maintain contact, and compliance to ensure safe interaction with humans. We validate the approach in single and dual arm setting using KUKA LWR 4+ robotic arms. We show that the approach allows 1) to make smooth contact while applying large forces, 2) to maintain desired contact force when scanning non-linear surfaces, even when the surface is moved, and 3) to grasp and lift smoothly an object in the air, and to re-balance forces on the fly to maintain the grasp even when subjected to strong external disturbances.

Robotics: Science and Systems (RSS)
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 Notice créée le 2019-05-23, modifiée le 2020-07-02

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