000263467 001__ 263467
000263467 005__ 20190619220156.0
000263467 022__ $$a1662-5137
000263467 02470 $$a000455238000001$$2isi
000263467 0247_ $$a10.3389/fnsys.2018.00064$$2doi
000263467 037__ $$aARTICLE
000263467 245__ $$aThe Cortical States of Wakefulness
000263467 269__ $$a2019-01-08
000263467 260__ $$c2019-01-08
000263467 336__ $$aReviews
000263467 520__ $$aCortical neurons process information on a background of spontaneous, ongoing activity with distinct spatiotemporal profiles defining different cortical states. During wakefulness, cortical states alter constantly in relation to behavioral context, attentional level or general motor activity. In this review article, we will discuss our current understanding of cortical states in awake rodents, how they are controlled, their impact on sensory processing, and highlight areas for future research. A common observation in awake rodents is the rapid change in spontaneous cortical activity from high-amplitude, low-frequency (LF) fluctuations, when animals are quiet, to faster and smaller fluctuations when animals are active. This transition is typically thought of as a change in global brain state but recent work has shown variation in cortical states across regions, indicating the presence of a fine spatial scale control system. In sensory areas, the cortical state change is mediated by at least two convergent inputs, one from the thalamus and the other from cholinergic inputs in the basal forebrain. Cortical states have a major impact on the balance of activity between specific subtypes of neurons, on the synchronization between nearby neurons, as well as the functional coupling between distant cortical areas. This reorganization of the activity of cortical networks strongly affects sensory processing. Thus cortical states provide a dynamic control system for the moment-by-moment regulation of cortical processing.
000263467 542__ $$fCC BY
000263467 650__ $$aNeurosciences
000263467 650__ $$aNeurosciences & Neurology
000263467 6531_ $$abrain states
000263467 6531_ $$abarrel cortex
000263467 6531_ $$asensory processing
000263467 6531_ $$asynchrony
000263467 6531_ $$aacetylcholine
000263467 6531_ $$amembrane-potential dynamics
000263467 6531_ $$awhole-cell recordings
000263467 6531_ $$abarrel cortex
000263467 6531_ $$along-range
000263467 6531_ $$abasal forebrain
000263467 6531_ $$amotor cortex
000263467 6531_ $$asensory responses
000263467 6531_ $$aprefrontal cortex
000263467 6531_ $$athalamic control
000263467 6531_ $$again modulation
000263467 700__ $$aPoulet, James F. A.
000263467 700__ $$aCrochet, Sylvain$$0240842$$g165867
000263467 773__ $$q64$$j12$$tFrontiers In Systems Neuroscience
000263467 8560_ $$fbeatrice.marselli@epfl.ch
000263467 8564_ $$uhttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/263467/files/The%20Cortical%20States%20of%20Wakefulness.pdf$$zFinal$$s4607855
000263467 909CO $$preview$$particle$$ooai:infoscience.epfl.ch:263467
000263467 961__ $$afantin.reichler@epfl.ch
000263467 973__ $$aEPFL$$sPUBLISHED$$rREVIEWED
000263467 981__ $$aoverwrite
000263467 980__ $$aARTICLE
000263467 999C0 $$zBlumer, Eliane$$xU10837$$pLSENS$$meliane.blumer@epfl.ch$$0252149