Three-Dimensional Integrated Ultra-Low-Volume Passive Microfluidics with Ion-Sensitive Field-Effect Transistors for Multiparameter Wearable Sweat Analyzers

Wearable systems could offer noninvasive and real-time solutions for monitoring of biomarkers in human sweat as an alternative to blood testing. Recent studies have demonstrated that the concentration of certain biomarkers in sweat can be directly correlated to their concentrations in blood, making sweat a trusted biofluid candidate for noninvasive diagnostics. We introduce a fully on-chip integrated wearable sweat sensing system to track biochemical information at the surface of the skin in real time. This system heterogeneously integrates, on a single silicon chip, state-of-the-art ultrathin body (UTB) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) ISFET sensors with a biocompatible microfluidic interface, to deliver a "lab-on-skin" sensing platform. A full process for the fabrication of this system is proposed in this work and is demonstrated by standard semiconductor fabrication procedures. The system is capable of collecting small volumes of sweat from the skin of a human and posteriorly passively driving the biofluid, by capillary action, to a set of functionalized ISFETs for analysis of pH level and Na+ and concentrations. Drop-tasted ion-sensing membranes on different sets of sensors on the same substrate enable multiparameter analysis on the same chip, with small and controlled cross-sensitivities, whereas a miniaturized quasireference electrodes set a stable analyte potential, avoiding the use of a cumbersome external reference electrode. The progress of lab-on-skin technology reported here can lead to autonomous wearable systems enabling real-time continuous monitoring of sweat composition, with applications ranging from medicine to lifestyle behavioral engineering and sports.

Published in:
Acs Nano, 12, 12, 12646-12656
Dec 01 2018

 Record created 2019-01-23, last modified 2020-04-20

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