Single-particle reconstruction (SPR) from electron microscopy (EM) images is widely used in structural biology, but it lacks direct information on protein identity. To address this limitation, we developed a computational and analytical framework that reconstructs and coaligns multiple proteins from 2D super-resolution fluorescence images. To demonstrate our method, we generated multicolor 3D reconstructions of several proteins within the human centriole, which revealed their relative locations, dimensions and orientations.