Abstract

Integrated bio/nano/Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) interfaces for electrochemical molecular sensing are becoming more and more common in the literature, especially for developing new electronic biochips for smart and intelligent Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications in remote monitoring of human body metabolism. The need for a bio interface is to specifically recognize the sensing of target molecules. The need for a nano interface is to address issues related to device sensitivity with respect to the envisaged medical application. Finally, the need for a CMOS interface comes from the modern approach to wearable and personal electronics, now also thought as an entry gate for monitoring people in their daily lives (e.g., sportsmen during competitions or trainings, chronic patients at home, etc.). Therefore, this paper reviews some of the most advanced approaches and methods published in the literature over the last decade related to the co-design of integrated bio/nano/CMOS interfaces for electrochemical sensing of molecules related to human metabolism. Several approaches for realizing nanostructures directly on top of CMOS dies are introduced as well, and the related applications in biosensing are described. (C) 2018 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

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