HIV-1 Vpr and p21 restrict LINE-1 mobility

Long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1, L1) composes ∼17% of the human genome. However, genetic interactions between L1 and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remain poorly understood. In this study, we found that HIV-1 suppresses L1 retrotransposition. Notably, HIV-1 Vpr strongly inhibited retrotransposition without inhibiting L1 promoter activity. Since Vpr is known to regulate host cell cycle, we examined the possibility whether Vpr suppresses L1 retrotransposition in a cell cycle dependent manner. We showed that the inhibitory effect of a mutant Vpr (H71R), which is unable to arrest the cell cycle, was significantly relieved compared with that of wild-type Vpr, suggesting that Vpr suppresses L1 mobility in a cell cycle dependent manner. Furthermore, a host cell cycle regulator p21Waf1 strongly suppressed L1 retrotransposition. The N-terminal kinase inhibitory domain (KID) of p21 was required for this inhibitory effect. Another KID-containing host cell cycle regulator p27Kip1 also strongly suppressed L1 retrotransposition. We showed that Vpr and p21 coimmunoprecipitated with L1 ORF2p and they suppressed the L1 reverse transcriptase activity in LEAP assay, suggesting that Vpr and p21 inhibit ORF2p-mediated reverse transcription. Altogether, our results suggest that viral and host cell cycle regulatory machinery limit L1 mobility in cultured cells.


Published in:
Nucleic Acids Research, 46, 16, 8454-8470
Year:
Jul 31 2018
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 Record created 2018-11-28, last modified 2018-12-03


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