Highly-stable Li + ion-selective electrodes based on noble metal nanostructured layers as solid-contacts

Nowadays the development of stable and highly efficient Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes (SC-ISEs) attracts much attention in the research community because of the great expansion of portable analytical devices. In this work, we present highly stable Li+ all-solid-state ISEs exploiting noble metals nanostructures as ion-to-electron transducers. The detection of lithium is essential for therapeutic drug monitoring of bipolar patients. In addition, greater environmental exposure to this ion is occurring due to the large diffusion of lithium-ion batteries. However, only a limited number of SC Li+ ISEs already exists in literature based on Conductive Polymers (CPs) and carbon nanotubes. The use of noble metals for ion-to-electron transduction offers considerable advantages over CPs and carbon materials, including fast and conformal one-step deposition by electrochemical means, non-toxicity and high stability. We investigate for the first time the use of gold nanocorals obtained by means of a one-step electrodeposition process to improve sensor performance and we compare it to all-solid-state ISEs based on electrodeposited platinum nanoflowers. In addition, the effect of substrate electrode material, membrane thickness and conditioning concentration on the potentiometric response is carefully analysed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Current Reversal Chronopotentiometry (CRC) techniques are used to characterize the morphology and the electrochemical behaviour of the different ISEs. The use of nanostructured gold and platinum contacts allows the increase of the SC capacitance by one or two orders of magnitude, respectively, with respect to the flat metal, while the SC resistance is significantly reduced. We show that the microfabricated sensors offer Nernstian behaviour (58.7Nowadays the development of stable and highly efficient Solid-Contact Ion-Selective Electrodes (SC-ISEs) attracts much attention in the research community because of the great expansion of portable analytical devices. In this work, we present highly stable Li+ all-solid-state ISEs exploiting noble metals nanostructures as ion-to-electron transducers. The detection of lithium is essential for therapeutic drug monitoring of bipolar patients. In addition, greater environmental exposure to this ion is occurring due to the large diffusion of lithium-ion batteries. However, only a limited number of SC Li+ ISEs already exists in literature based on Conductive Polymers (CPs) and carbon nanotubes. The use of noble metals for ion-to-electron transduction offers considerable advantages over CPs and carbon materials, including fast and conformal one-step deposition by electrochemical means, non-toxicity and high stability. We investigate for the first time the use of gold nanocorals obtained by means of a one-step electrodeposition process to improve sensor performance and we compare it to all-solid-state ISEs based on electrodeposited platinum nanoflowers. In addition, the effect of substrate electrode material, membrane thickness and conditioning concentration on the potentiometric response is carefully analysed. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Current Reversal Chronopotentiometry (CRC) techniques are used to characterize the morphology and the electrochemical behaviour of the different ISEs. The use of nanostructured gold and platinum contacts allows the increase of the SC capacitance by one or two orders of magnitude, respectively, with respect to the flat metal, while the SC resistance is significantly reduced. We show that the microfabricated sensors offer Nernstian behaviour in the activity range from 10<sup>-5</sup>to 0.1 M, with short response time (15 s) and small potential drift during CRC measurements ( V/s). The exceptional response stability is verified also when no potential is applied. The sensor shows high selectivity towards all clinically important ions, with values very similar to conventional ISEs. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the selectivity towards Ca<sup>+2</sup> is the best ever reported for SC-ISEs. In conclusion, the present study opens up new interesting perspectives towards the development of simple and reproducible fabrication protocols to obtain high-quality and high-stability all-solid-state 0.8 mV/decade) in the activity range from to 0.1 M, with short response time (15 s) and small potential drift during CRC measurements. The exceptional response stability is verified also when no potential is applied. The sensor shows high selectivity towards all clinically important ions, with values very similar to conventional ISEs. Furthermore, to our knowledge, the selectivity towards Ca+2 is the best ever reported for SC-ISEs. In conclusion, the present study opens up new interesting perspectives towards the development of simple and reproducible fabrication protocols to obtain high-quality and high-stability all-solid-state ISEs.


Published in:
Analytica Chimica Acta, 1027, 22-32
Year:
Oct 16 2018
Note:
OPEN ACCESS
Laboratories:




 Record created 2018-06-08, last modified 2018-12-03


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