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Measurements of local strength are performed in-situ on individual silicon particles that constitute the second phase of aluminium alloy A356. Particles are shaped using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling such that, upon the application of a compressive force on the particle, a volume of material unaffected by FIB milling is subjected to bending. Silicon particles in this commercial aluminium casting alloy are shown to be capable of locally sustaining tensile stresses as high as 16 GPa, i.e., approaching theoretical strength. The reason why such strengths are not reached by most alloy Si particles is shown to be the presence of specific surface defects, the effect of which is assessed. The most deleterious defects are interfaces between merged silicon crystals; therefore, eliminating these might lead to significantly enhanced strength and ductility in this widely-used casting alloy family. (C) 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd.