Journal article

Large second harmonic generation enhancement in Si3N4 waveguides by all-optically induced quasiphase- matching

Efficient second harmonic generation in integrated platforms is usually achieved by resonant structures, intermodal phase-matching or quasi-phase matching by periodically poling ferroelectric waveguides. However, in all these structures, it is impossible to reconfigure the phase-matching condition in an all-optical way. Here, we demonstrate that a Watt-level laser causes a periodic modification of the second-order susceptibility in a silicon nitride waveguide, allowing for quasi-phase-matching between the pump and second harmonic modes for arbitrary wavelengths inside the erbium band. The grating is long-term inscribed, and leads to a second harmonic generation enhancement of more than 30 dB. We estimate a χ(2) on the order of 0.3 pm/V, with a maximum conversion efficiency of 0.05%W−1. We explain the observed phenomenon with the coherent photogalvanic effect model, which correctly agrees with the retrieved experimental parameters.

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