Modeling wave propagation in highly heterogeneous media is of prime importance in engineering applications of diverse nature such as seismic inversion, medical imaging or the design of composite materials. The numerical approximation of such multiscale physical models is a mathematical challenge. Indeed, to reach an acceptable accuracy, standard numerical methods require the discretization of the whole medium at the microscopic scale, which leads to a prohibitive computational cost. Homogenization theory ensures the existence of a homogenized wave equation, obtained from the original problem by a limiting process. As this equation does not depend on the microscopic scale, it is a good target for numerical methods. Unfortunately, for general media, the homogenized equation may not be unique and no formulas are available for its effective data. %Diverse numerical strategies have been developed to approximate a homogenized solution. Nevertheless, such formulas are known for media described by a locally periodic tensor. In that case, or more generally for problems with scale separation, methods such as the finite element heterogeneous multiscale method (FE-HMM) are proved to efficiently approximate the homogenized solution. For wave propagation in heterogeneous media, however, it is known that at large timescales the homogenized solution fails to describe the dispersive behavior of the original wave. Hence, a new equation that captures this dispersion is needed. In this thesis, we study such effective equations for long time wave propagation in heterogeneous media. The first result that we present holds in periodic media. Using the technique of asymptotic expansion, we obtain the characterization of a whole family of equations that describes the long time dispersive effects of the oscillating wave. The validity of our derivation is ensured by rigorous a priori error estimates. We also derive a numerical procedure for the computation of the tensors involved in the first order effective equations. This leads to a numerical homogenization method for long time wave propagation in periodic media. The second result that we present generalizes the procedure for deriving effective equations to arbitrary timescales. This generalization is also useful, for example, for the homogenization of the wave equation with high frequency initial data. We also provide a numerical procedure allowing to compute effective tensors of arbitrary order. The third result is the generalization of the family of first order effective equations from periodic to locally periodic media. A rigorous a priori error analysis is also derived in this situation. This constitutes the first analysis of effective models for the long time approximation of the wave equation in locally periodic media. In a second part of the thesis, we derive numerical homogenization methods for the long time approximation of the wave equation in locally periodic media. In one dimension, we analyze a modification of the FE-HMM called the FE-HMM-L. In higher dimensions, we design a spectral homogenization method. For both methods, we prove error estimates valid for large timescales and in arbitrarily large spatial domains. In particular, we show that these numerical homogenization methods converge to effective solutions that approximate the highly oscillatory wave equation over long time.