Journal article

Improving Cross-Day EEG-Based Emotion Classification Using Robust Principal Component Analysis

Constructing a robust emotion-aware analytical framework using non-invasively recorded electroencephalogram (EEG) signals has gained intensive attentions nowadays. However, as deploying a laboratory-oriented proof-of-concept study toward real-world applications, researchers are now facing an ecological challenge that the EEG patterns recorded in real life substantially change across days (i.e., day-to-day variability), arguably making the pre-defined predictive model vulnerable to the given EEG signals of a separate day. The present work addressed how to mitigate the inter-day EEG variability of emotional responses with an attempt to facilitate cross-day emotion classification, which was less concerned in the literature. This study proposed a robust principal component analysis (RPCA)-based signal filtering strategy and validated its neurophysiological validity and machine-learning practicability on a binary emotion classification task (happiness vs. sadness) using a five-day EEG dataset of 12 subjects when participated in a music-listening task. The empirical results showed that the RPCA-decomposed sparse signals (RPCA-S) enabled filtering off the background EEG activity that contributed more to the inter-day variability, and predominately captured the EEG oscillations of emotional responses that behaved relatively consistent along days. Through applying a realistic add-day-in classification validation scheme, the RPCA-S progressively exploited more informative features (from 12.67 +/- 5.99 to 20.83 +/- 7.18) and improved the cross-day binary emotion-classification accuracy (from 58.31 +/- 12.33% to 64.03 +/- 8.40%) as trained the EEG signals from one to four recording days and tested against one unseen subsequent day. The original EEG features (prior to RPCA processing) neither achieved the cross-day classification (the accuracy was around chance level) nor replicated the encouraging improvement due to the inter -day EEG variability. This result demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method and may shed some light on developing a realistic emotion classification analytical framework alleviating day-to-day variability.


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