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Postimpregnation of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized within hyper-cross-linked polystyrene with sodium or potassium hydroxides of optimal concentration was found to significantly increase the catalytic activity for the partial hydrogenation of the C–C triple bond in 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol at ambient hydrogen pressure. The alkali metal hydroxide accelerates the transformation of the residual Pd(II) salt into Pd(0) NPs and diminishes the reaction induction period. In addition, the selectivity to the desired 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol increases with the K- and Na-doped catalysts from 97.0 up to 99.5%. This effect was assigned to interactions of the alkali metal ions with the Pd NPs surfaces resulting in the sites’ separation and a change of reactants adsorption.