Journal article

Double-layer graphene for enhanced tunable infrared plasmonics

Graphene is emerging as a promising material for photonic applications owing to its unique optoelectronic properties. Graphene supports tunable, long-lived and extremely confined plasmons that have great potential for applications such as biosensing and optical communications. However, in order to excite plasmonic resonances in graphene, this material requires a high doping level, which is challenging to achieve without degrading carrier mobility and stability. Here, we demonstrate that the infrared plasmonic response of a graphene multilayer stack is analogous to that of a highly doped single layer of graphene, preserving mobility and supporting plasmonic resonances with higher oscillator strength than previously explored single-layer devices. Particularly, we find that the optically equivalent carrier density in multilayer graphene is larger than the sum of those in the individual layers. Furthermore, electrostatic biasing in multilayer graphene is enhanced with respect to single layer due to the redistribution of carriers over different layers, thus extending the spectral tuning range of the plasmonic structure. The superior effective doping and improved tunability of multilayer graphene stacks should enable a plethora of future infrared plasmonic devices with high optical performance and wide tunability.


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