000229221 001__ 229221
000229221 005__ 20181203024733.0
000229221 0247_ $$2doi$$a10.1016/j.cognition.2017.05.028
000229221 022__ $$a0010-0277
000229221 02470 $$2ISI$$a000405160500017
000229221 037__ $$aARTICLE
000229221 245__ $$aUnconscious integration of multisensory bodily inputs in the peripersonal space shapes bodily self-consciousness
000229221 260__ $$bElsevier$$c2017$$aAmsterdam
000229221 269__ $$a2017
000229221 300__ $$a10
000229221 336__ $$aJournal Articles
000229221 520__ $$aRecent studies have highlighted the role of multisensory integration as a key mechanism of self-consciousness. In particular, integration of bodily signals within the peripersonal space (PPS) underlies the experience of the self in a body we own (self-identification) and that is experienced as occupying a specific location in space (self-location), two main components of bodily self-consciousness (BSC). Experiments investigating the effects of multisensory integration on BSC have typically employed supra-threshold sensory stimuli, neglecting the role of unconscious sensory signals in BSC, as tested in other consciousness research. Here, we used psychophysical techniques to test whether multisensory integration of bodily stimuli underlying BSC also occurs for multisensory inputs presented below the threshold of conscious perception. Our results indicate that visual stimuli rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression boost processing of tactile stimuli on the body (Exp. 1), and enhance the perception of near-threshold tactile stimuli (Exp. 2), only once they entered PPS. We then employed unconscious multisensory stimulation to manipulate BSC. Participants were presented with tactile stimulation on their body and with visual stimuli on a virtual body, seen at a distance, which were either visible or rendered invisible. We found that participants reported higher self-identification with the virtual body in the synchronous visuo-tactile stimulation (as compared to asynchronous stimulation; Exp. 3), and shifted their self-location toward the virtual body (Exp.4), even if stimuli were fully invisible. Our results indicate that multisensory inputs, even outside of awareness, are integrated and affect the phenomenological content of self-consciousness, grounding BSC firmly in the field of psychophysical consciousness studies.
000229221 6531_ $$aConsciousness
000229221 6531_ $$aMultisensory integration
000229221 6531_ $$aPeripersonal space
000229221 6531_ $$aBodily self-consciousness
000229221 6531_ $$aContinuous flash suppression
000229221 6531_ $$aVisual awareness
000229221 700__ $$0245162$$g209116$$aSalomon, Roy
000229221 700__ $$aNoel, Jean-Paul
000229221 700__ $$aŁukowska, Marta
000229221 700__ $$aFaivre, Nathan
000229221 700__ $$aMetzinger, Thomas
000229221 700__ $$0246654$$g229807$$aSerino, Andrea
000229221 700__ $$aBlanke, Olaf$$g165806$$0240593
000229221 773__ $$j166$$tCognition$$q174-183
000229221 909C0 $$xU12599$$0252517$$pCNP
000229221 909C0 $$xU11025$$0252325$$pLNCO
000229221 909CO $$pSV$$particle$$ooai:infoscience.tind.io:229221
000229221 917Z8 $$x261654
000229221 937__ $$aEPFL-ARTICLE-229221
000229221 973__ $$rREVIEWED$$sPUBLISHED$$aEPFL
000229221 980__ $$aARTICLE