Journal article

Definition of Accurate Reference Synchrophasors for Static and Dynamic Characterization of PMUs

The calibration of phasor measurement units (PMUs) consists of comparing coordinated universal time time-aligned phasors (synchrophasors) measured by the PMU under test, against reference synchrophasors generated through a PMU calibrator. The IEEE Standard C37.118-2011 and its latest amendment (IEEE Std) describe compliance tests for static and dynamic conditions, and indicate the relative limits in terms of accuracy. In this context, this paper focuses on the definition and accuracy assessment of the reference synchrophasors in the test conditions defined by the above IEEE Std. In the first part of this paper, we describe the characterization of a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm used to determine the parameters of these reference synchrophasors. For this analysis, we deploy the proposed algorithm in a PMU calibrator and characterize the algorithm performance within the actual hardware implementation for both static and dynamic test conditions. More specifically, we generate reference waveforms through a highly stable high-resolution digital-to-analog converter and evaluate how the algorithm parameters (observation interval length and sampling frequency) affect the solution accuracy. In the second part, we discuss on the appropriateness of the synchrophasor model in the evaluation of PMU performance under step test conditions. In this regard, we propose an alternative time-domain approach to assess the synchrophasor estimate during transient events.


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