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Journal article

Chemical Distribution of Multiple Cation (Rb+, Cs+, MA(+), and FA(+)) Perovskite Materials by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

Lead-based mixed perovskite materials have emerged in the last couple of years as promising photovoltaic materials. Recently, it was shown that improved material stability can be achieved by incorporating small amounts of inorganic cations (Cs+ and Rb+), partially replacing the more common organic cations (e.g., methylammonium, MA, and formamidinium, FA). Especially, a mixed cation composition containing Rb+, Cs+, MA(+), and FA(+) was recently shown to have beneficial optoelectronic properties and was stable at elevated temperature. This work focuses on the composition of this material using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy. Different probing depths were considered by changing the photon energy of the X-ray source providing insights on the chemical composition and the chemical distribution near the surface of the samples. Perovskite materials containing two, three, or four monovalent cations were analyzed and compared. The presence of Cs and Rb was observed both at the sample surface and toward the bulk, and we found that in the presence of three or four cations, less unreacted PbI2 remains in the sample. Interestingly, Rb and Cs appear to act jointly resulting in a different cation depth profile compared to that of the triple counterparts. Our findings provide significant understanding of the intricate depth-dependent chemical composition in perovskite materials using the common practice of cation mixing.

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