Journal article

The microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316 L stainless steel fabricated using laser engineered net shaping

The mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of 316 L stainless steel fabricated using the Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) technique have been studied. The crack-free, full density samples made using SS316L alloy powder and the LENS technique are characterized by an unusual distinct dual-phase microstructure. STEM analysis revealed a significant increase of Cr and Mo content and a decrease of Ni in the grain boundaries. Based on the Cr and Ni content (austenite stabilizing elements), the Schaeffler diagram and the EBSD results, the existence of intercellular delta ferrite on subgrain boundaries and austenite in the fine-grains are observed. The XRD patterns, in addition to the FCC austenite phase, revealed the second BCC ferrite phase. Moreover, the sigma (FeCr) phases are present in the analyzed 316 L stainless steel. The occurrence of ferrite, which does not occur in regular stainless steel fabricated using conventional metallurgical methods, improves the mechanical and corrosion properties of the LENS-fabricated sample made using 316 L stainless steel powder. The obtained results prove that the microstructure of the SS316L fabricated using LENS is heterogeneous; its impact on the mechanical properties is visible. The analyzed samples are characterized by anisotropic mechanical properties that are favorable. For both the perpendicular and parallel directions of tensile tests, samples had a ductile fracture with many dimples inside of the larger dimples. The corrosion potential of SS316L LENS and classically manufactured steel is similar. The SS316L fabricated using LENS is characterized by a relatively low value of corrosion current density, which translates into much smaller corrosion rates. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Related material