Journal article

Efficient Near-Infrared-Transparent Perovskite Solar Cells Enabling Direct Comparison of 4-Terminal and Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Cells

Combining market-proven silicon solar cell technology with an efficient wide band gap top cell into a tandem device is an attractive approach to reduce the cost of photovoltaic systems. For this, perovskite solar cells are promising high-efficiency top cell candidates, but their typical device size (<0.2 cm2), is still far from standard industrial sizes. We present a1cm2 near-infrared transparent perovskite solar cell with 14.5% steady- state efficiency, as compared to 16.4% on 0.25 cm2. By mechanically stacking these cells with silicon heterojunction cells, we experimentally demonstrate a 4-terminal tandem measurement with a steady-state efficiency of 25.2%, with a 0.25 cm2 top cell. The developed top cell processing methods enable the fabrication of a 20.5% efficient and 1.43 cm2 large monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cell, featuring a rear-side textured bottom cell to increase its near-infrared spectral response. Finally, we compare both tandem configurations to identify efficiency-limiting factors and discuss the potential for further performance improvement.

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