Tralopyril bioconcentration and effects on the gill proteome of the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis
Antifouling (AF) systems are used worldwide as one of the most cost-effective ways of protecting submerged structures against heavy biofouling. The emergence of environmentally friendly AF biocides requires knowledge on their environmental fate and toxicity. In this study we measured the bioconcentration of the emerging AF biocide tralopyril (TP) in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and investigated the effects of TP on the mussel gill proteome following acute (2 days) and chronic (30 days) exposure, as well as after a 10-day depuration period. The experiments were carried out with 1 mu g/L TP; blank and solvent (5 x 10(-5)% DMSO) controls were also included. Proteomics analysis was performed by mass spectrometry-based multidimensional protein identification technology (MudPIT). Differentially expressed proteins were identified using a label-free approach based on spectral counts and G-test. Our results show that TP is rapidly accumulated by mussels at concentrations up to 362 ng/g dw (whole tissues), reaching steady-state condition within 13 days. Ten days of depuration resulted in 80% elimination of accumulated TP from the organism, suggesting that a complete elimination could be reached with longer depuration times. In total, 46 proteins were found to be regulated in the different exposure scenarios. Interestingly, not only TP but also DMSO alone significantly modulated the protein expression in mussel gills following acute and chronic exposure. Both compounds regulated proteins involved in bioenergetics, immune system, active efflux and oxidative stress, often in the opposite way. Alterations of several proteins, notably several cytoskeletal ones, were still observed after the depuration period. These may reflect either the continuing chemical effect due to incomplete elimination or an onset of recovery processes in the mussel gills. Our study shows that exposure of adult mussels to sublethal TP concentration results in the bioconcentration of this biocide in the tissues and modulates the expression of several proteins that may intervene in important metabolic pathways. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Record created on 2016-10-18, modified on 2016-10-18