Impact of a Mesoporous Titania-Perovskite Interface on the Performance of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Solar Cells
We report on the optimization of the interfacial properties of titania in mesoscopic CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells. Modification of the mesoporous TiO2 film by TiCl4 treatment substantially reduced the surface traps, as is evident from the sharpness of the absorption edge with a significant reduction in Urbach energy (from 320 to 140 meV) determined from photothermal deflection spectroscopy, and led to an order of magnitude enhancement in the bulk electron mobility and corresponding decrease in the transport activation energy (from 170 to 90 meV) within a device. After optimization of the photoanode-perovskite interface using various sizes of TiO2 nanoparticles, the best photovoltaic efficiency of 16.3% was achieved with the mesoporous TiO2 composed of 36 nm sized nanoparticles. The improvement in device performance can be attributed to the enhanced charge collection efficiency that is driven by improved charge transport in the mesoporous TiO2 layer. Also, the decreased recombination at the TiO2-perovskite interface and better perovskite coverage play important roles.