Molecular landscapes of human hematopoietic stem cells in health and leukemia
Blood cells are organized as a hierarchy with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) at the root. The advent of genomic technologies has opened the way for global characterization of the molecular landscape of HSCs and their progeny, both in mouse and human models, at the genetic, transcriptomic, epigenetic, and proteomics levels. Here, we outline our current understanding of the molecular programs that govern human HSCs and how dynamic changes occurring during HSC differentiation are necessary for well-regulated blood formation under homeostasis and upon injury. A large body of evidence is accumulating on how the programs of normal hematopoiesis are modified in acute myeloid leukemia, an aggressive adult malignancy driven by leukemic stem cells. We summarize these findings and their clinical implications.