Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes
In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial con- centration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation in- dicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation- Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk.