First Observation of D-0 - (D)over-bar(0) Oscillations in D-0 -> K+pi(-)pi(+)pi(-) Decays and Measurement of the Associated Coherence Parameters
Charm meson oscillations are observed in a time-dependent analysis of the ratio of D-0 -> K+pi(-)pi(+)pi(-) to D-0 -> K-pi(+)pi(-)pi(+) decay rates, using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb(-1) recorded by the LHCb experiment. The measurements presented are sensitive to the phase-space averaged ratio of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed to Cabibbo-favored amplitudes r(D)(K3 pi) and the product of the coherence factor R-D(K3 pi) and a charm mixing parameter y'(K3 pi). The constraints measured are r(D)(K3 pi) = (5.67 +/- 0.12) x 10(-2), which is the most precise determination to date, and R-D(K3 pi) y'(K3 pi) = (0.3 +/- 1.8) x 10(-3), which provides useful input for determinations of the CP-violating phase gamma in B-+/- -> DK +/-, D -> K--/+pi(+/-)pi(-/+)pi(+/-) decays. The analysis also gives the most precise measurement of the D-0 -> K+pi(-)pi(+)pi(-) branching fraction, and the first observation of D-0-(D) over bar (0) oscillations in this decay mode, with a significance of 8.2 standard deviations.