Infoscience

Thesis

Exact Convex Modeling of the Optimal Power Flow for the Operation and Planning of Active Distribution Networks with Energy Storage Systems

The distribution networks are experiencing important changes driven by the massive integration of renewable energy conversion systems. However, the lack of direct controllability of the Distributed Generations (DGs) supplying Active Distribution Networks (ADNs) represents a major obstacle to the increase of the penetration of renewable energy resources characterized by a non-negligible volatility. The successful development of ADNs depends on the combination of i) specific control tools and ii) availability of new technologies and controllable resources. Within this context, this thesis focuses on developing practical and scalable methodologies for the ADN planning and operation with particular reference to the integration of Energy Storage Systems (ESSs) owned, and directly controlled, by the Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). In this respect, an exact convex formulation of Optimal Power Flow (OPF), called AR-OPF, is first proposed for the case of radial power networks. The proposed formulation takes into account the correct model of the lines and the security constraints related to the nodal voltage magnitudes, as well as, the lines ampacity limits. Sufficient conditions are provided to guarantee that the solution of the AR-OPF is feasible and optimal (i.e., the relaxation used is exact). Moreover, by analyzing the exactness conditions, it is revealed that they are mild and hold for real distribution networks. The AR-OPF is further augmented by suitably incorporating radiality constraints in order to develop an optimization model for optimal reconfiguration of ADNs. Then, a two-stage optimization problem for day-ahead resource scheduling in ADNs, accounting for the uncertainties of nodal injections, is proposed. The Adaptive Robust Optimization (ARO) and stochastic optimization techniques are successfully adapted to solve this optimization problem. The solutions of ARO and stochastic optimization reveal that the ARO provides a feasible solution for any realization of the uncertain parameters even if its solution is optimal only for the worst case realization. On the other hand, the stochastic optimization provides a solution taking into account the probability of the considered scenarios. Finally, the problem of optimal resource planning in ADNs is investigated with particular reference to the ESSs. In this respect, the AR-OPF and the proposed ADN reconfiguration model, are employed to develop optimization models for the optimal siting and sizing of ESSs in ADNs. The objective function aims at finding the optimal trade-off between technical and economical goals. In particular, the proposed procedures accounts for (i) network voltage deviations, (ii) feeders/lines congestions, (iii) network losses, (iv) cost of supplying loads (from external grid or local producers) together with the cost of ESS investment/maintenance, (v) load curtailment and (vi) stochasticity of loads and renewables production. The use of decomposition methods for solving the targeted optimization problems with discrete variables and probable large size is investigated. More specifically, Benders decomposition and Alternative Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) techniques are successfully applied to the targeted problems. Using real and standard networks, it is shown that the ESSs could possibly prevent load and generation curtailment, reduce the voltage deviations and lines congestions, and do the peak shaving.

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