Effective and robust energy retrofitting measures for future climatic conditions — Reduced heating demand of Swedish households
This article quantifies the energy saving potential and robustness of nine energy retrofitting measures,as well as four combinations of these, for residential building stocks of three major cities in Swedenand for five scenarios of future climatic conditions, downscaled by a regional climate model (RCM).The retrofitting measures are evaluated for five temporal resolutions of hourly, daily, monthly, annualand 20-years during the period of 1961 through 2100. The evaluation takes into account a very impor-tant uncertainty factor of future climate data, induced by different global climate models (GCMs). Theapplication of a statistical method for assessing the retrofitting measures is being evaluated.Results verify the consistency and reliability of the comparative assessment and confirm the possibilityof assessing the retrofitting measures without the need for long-term simulations and considering climateuncertainties. Among the considered retrofitting measures, a combination of an improved thermal insu-lation of the building envelope with energy efficient windows is the most effective and robust retrofittingmeasure, while tuning the indoor set-point temperature to 20◦C can also contribute to significant energysavings.