Efficient Monolithic Perovskite/Silicon Tandem Solar Cell with Cell Area >1 cm
Monolithic perovskite/crystalline silicon tandem solar cells hold great promise for further performance improvement of well-established silicon photovoltaics; however, monolithic tandem integration is challenging, evidenced by the modest performances and small-area devices reported so far. Here we present first a low-temperature process for semitransparent perovskite solar cells, yielding efficiencies of up to 14.5%. Then, we implement this process to fabricate monolithic perovskite/silicon heterojunction tandem solar cells yielding efficiencies of up to 21.2 and 19.2% for cell areas of 0.17 and 1.22 cm2, respectively. Both efficiencies are well above those of the involved subcells. These single-junction perovskite and tandem solar cells are hysteresis-free and demonstrate steady performance under maximum power point tracking for several minutes. Finally, we present the effects of varying the intermediate recombination layer and hole transport layer thicknesses on tandem cell photocurrent generation, experimentally and by transfer matrix simulations.